Pessimists______to a tragic sense of human nature and cannot really enjoy the Pleasure of living as a human being.
The restaurant features a wide-open kitchen surrounded by wooden counters on three sides, where a brigade of assiduous chefs with white caps work in assembly-line fashion.
On issues such as climate change and trade, China has acted more responsible than the Trump administration，seeking to uphold global accords rather than chuck grenades at them.
A.is acting more responsible
B.acted with more responsibly
C.has acted more responsibly
D.has acted more responsibilities
AlphaZero seems to express insight.It plays like no computer ever has, intuitively and beautifully, with a romantic, attacking style.It plays gambits and takes risks.In some games it paralyzed Stockfish and toyed with it.While conducting its attack in Game 10, AlphaZero retreated its queen back into the comer of the board on its own side，far from Stockfish's king, not normally where an attacking queen should be placed.
Yet this peculiar retreat was venomous: No matter how Stockfish replied, it was doomed.It was almost as if AlphaZero was waiting for Stockfish to realize, after billions of brutish calculations, how hopeless its position truly was, so that the beast could relax and expire peacefully, like a vanquished bull before a matador.Grandmasters had never seen anything like it.AlphaZero had the finesse of a virtuoso and the power of a machine.It was humankind's first glimpse of an awesome new kind of intelligence.
When AlphaZero was first unveiled, some observers complained that Stockfish had been lobotomized by not giving it access to its book of memorized openings.This time around, even with its book, it got crushed again.And when AlphaZero handicapped itself by giving Stockfish ten times more time to think, it still destroyed the brute.Tellingly, AlphaZero won by thinking smarter, not faster; it examined only 60 thousand positions a second, compared to 60 million for Stockfish.It was wiser, knowing what to think about and what to ignore.By discovering the principles of chess on its own, AlphaZero developed a style of play that “reflects the truth” about the game rather than “the priorities and prejudices of programmers，” Mr.Kasparov wrote in a commentary accompanying the Science article.
The question now is whether machine learning can help humans discover similar truths about the things we really care about: the great unsolved problems of science and medicine, such as cancer and consciousness; the riddles of the immune system, the mysteries of the genome.
The early signs are encouraging.Last August, two articles in Nature Medicine explored how machine learning could be applied to medical diagnosis.In one, researchers at DeepMind teamed up with clinicians at Moorfields Eye Hospital in London to develop a deep-learning algorithm that could classify a wide range of retinal pathologies as accurately as human experts can.(Ophthalmology suffers from a severe shortage of experts who can interpret the millions of diagnostic eye scans performed each year; artificially intelligent assistants could help enormously.)
The other article concerned a machine-learning algorithm that decides whether a CT scan of an emergency-room patient shows signs of a stroke, an intracranial hemorrhage or other critical neurological event.For stroke victims, every minute matters; the longer treatment is delayed, the worse the outcome tends to be.(Neurologists have a grim saying: “Time is brain.”）The new algorithm flagged these and other critical events with an accuracy comparable to human experts 一 but it did so 150 times faster.A faster diagnostician could allow the most urgent cases to be triaged sooner, with review by a human radiologist.
What is frustrating about machine learning, however, is that the algorithms can't articulate what they're thinking.We don't know why they work, so we don't know if they can be trusted.AlphaZero gives every appearance of having discovered some important
principles about chess, but it can't share that understanding with us.Not yet, at least.As human beings, we want more than answers.We want insight.This is going to be a source of tension in our interactions with computers from now on.
In fact, in mathematics, it's been happening for years already.Consider the longstanding math problem called the four-color map theorem.It proposes that, under certain reasonable constraints, any map of contiguous countries can always be colored with just four colors such that no two neighboring countries are colored the same.
Although the four-color theorem was proved in 1977 with the help of a computer, no human could check all the steps in the argument.Since then, the proof has been validated and simplified, but there are still parts of it that entail brute-force computation, of the kind employed by AlphaZero’s chess-playing computer ancestors.This development annoyed many mathematicians.They didn’t need to be reassured that the four-color theorem was true; they already believed it.They wanted to understand why it was true, and this proof didn't help.
Science Without Borders
Science and technology is among the factors that have taken the human civilization to the level it enjoys today. Every milestone in scientific and technological______(91) has taken society a step forward.
Numerous scientific innovations that enjoyed their heyday in history were later______(92) by new ones. Today, although we still admire those inventors, we are not awe-struck （驚嘆的）by their innovations or inventions as we now boast of science and technology much more ______(93) than in the past.
Will the science and technology of our times______(94) forever?______(95). In the future, people will view today's science and technology just as we______(96) those of centuries ago.
Therefore, technicians and scientists ought to______(97) full play to their innovations during the latter's limited “shelf life.”______(98), the application and spread of advanced science and technology has been hitting man-made snags (障礙）in today's world.Many of these______(99) are imposed by the developed West.
Science and technology is a______(100) that belongs to all mankind.To prevent its spread and exchange of scientific data for the sake of narrow interests is a selfish act.
The International Space Station, a manned space laboratory that saw the first launch in 1998, will complete its —______(101) in 2020 and then go out of orbit, falling into the sea.By then, China will have established its own space station, ______(102) will be the only one of its kind in space at that time. China has expressed its______(103) to share the space station with the rest of the world.But if U.S. politicians continue ______(104) their obstruction, it will be impossible for U.S. aerospace workers to use the Chinese space station.
The 5G communication technology, or 5G, is______(105) the most advanced in the world.Communication technology has been ______(106) by leaps and bounds. It took less than 10 years to develop 3G from 2G and then just three years to leap to 4G. Now communication technology has entered the 5G era, which will help further develop the Internet of Things and artificial intelligence.
Both China and the United States are frontrunners in 5G technology. U.S. telecom companies and consumers have a ______(107) demand for Huawei's 5G equipment but have been blocked access because of U.S. politicians5 focus on their own interests. However, 5G is not the end of communication technology. In the near future, quite possibly, it will be replaced by quantum communication technology. The space station technology of today will also be replaced by new ones. One day in future, human beings ______(108) be able to undertake interplanetary journeys as easily as they travel by plane from one country to another. Focusing on immediate interests and______(109) a blind eye to the future will hamper science workers' efforts to maximize the benefits of science and technology and will also affect entire society.
The world needs a ______(110) to maximize the benefits of science and technology, condemn efforts to impose borders on science, and seek to remove restraints on communication.